Hawker Hurricane Inhaltsverzeichnis
Die Hawker Hurricane war ein britisches Jagdflugzeug aus der Zeit des Zweiten Weltkriegs. Die bei Hawker Aircraft Ltd. konstruierte Maschine wurde von 19mehr als Mal gebaut. Die Hawker Hurricane war ein britisches Jagdflugzeug aus der Zeit des Zweiten Weltkriegs. Die bei Hawker Aircraft Ltd. konstruierte Maschine wurde von Die Hawker Hurrica ist eine Legende: In der Luftschlacht um England / bekämpfte die Hurricane erfolgreich deutsche Bomber. Hawker Hurricane Mk.I - WW2 Historische Sammlung. in completecurrencytrader.co store. Shop with toys and blocks for kids of all ages - completecurrencytrader.co Check out our wide range of toys. Hawker Hurricane Mk I–V (Air Vanguard, Band 6) | Chorlton, Martyn, Tooby, Adam, Smith, Simon | ISBN: | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher.
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Hawker Hurricane - Kunden, die diesen Artikel gekauft haben, kauften auchNur etwa 60 Sea Hurricane für die Royal Navy wurden neu gebaut. Aqua Email Spray Hauptfarben:. Sämtliche in Wüstenregionen eingesetzten Hurricane erhielten spezielle Sandfilter, die allerdings die Motorleistung und damit die Geschwindigkeit erheblich herabsetzten. Zahlreiche weitere entstanden durch den Umbau älterer Mk I. Nun erhielt der Jäger auch seinen offiziellen Namen: Hurricane. Oktober
Hawker Hurricane VideoHawker Hurricane R4118 0001
With the new Merlin XX, performance was good enough to keep the ageing Hurricane in production. Hawker soon introduced the new Mark IIA Series 2 with either of two wings; one mounting 12 Brownings, the other with four Hispano cannon in the original gun-bays.
The first Series 2s, armed with The tailwheel recess on the ventral keel was changed in shape and the tailwheel leg became a levered-suspension unit with a small torque link.
They were given engine dust filters and the pilots were issued a desert survival kit. By then performance was inferior to the latest German fighters, and the Hurricane changed to the ground-attack role, sometimes referred to as the Hurribomber.
The mark also served as a night fighter and "intruder. Mk IIs were used in ground support , where it was quickly learned that destroying German tanks was difficult; the cannons did not have the performance needed, while bombing the tanks was almost impossible.
The Hurricanes No. A new-build version of what was known as the Mk IID started in , including additional armour for the pilot, radiator and engine.
The weight of guns and armour protection had a marginal effect on the aircraft's performance. The IID was used in anti-tank operations in limited numbers during the North African campaign where, provided enemy flak and fighters were absent, they proved accurate and highly effective against armoured vehicles and all motor transport.
Only two aircraft were built for the Persian Air Force. By the time production was to have started, Merlin production had increased to the point where the idea was abandoned.
The Mk IV was used in ground-attack missions in the European theatre until the early days of , before being replaced by the more modern Hawker Typhoon.
In particular, Clostermann describes a rocket attack by Hurricanes from No. As the ground attack role moved to the more capable Hawker Typhoon , production of the Hurricane ended, and only a handful were delivered with the Merlin By this time, the Hurricane was no longer a frontline fighter in the United Kingdom.
However, it still saw extensive service overseas as a fighter, playing a prominent role in the Middle East and Far East. It was also critical to the defence of Malta during and early Single-seat fighter and fighter-bomber.
The propeller unit was changed to a Hamilton Standard "Hydromatic" constant-speed unit; often these aircraft lacked spinners.
Eight 0. In total, were built. Initially armed with twelve 0. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Going Solo.
London: Puffin Books, Price, , p 22, 41, Ministry of Defence. Retrieved 24 January London: Jane's Publishing Company, Bungay, Stephen.
The Most Dangerous Enemy. London: Aurum Press, London: Airlife, Mason, Francis K. Hawker Aircraft since London: Putnam, Camm's response to this rejection was to further develop the design, during which a retractable undercarriage was introduced and the unsatisfactory Goshawk engine was replaced by a new Rolls-Royce design, initially designated as the PV , which went on to become famous as the Merlin engine.
In August , a one-tenth scale model of the design was produced and dispatched to the National Physical Laboratory at Teddington.
A series of wind tunnel tests confirmed the aerodynamic qualities of the aircraft were in order, and in September , Camm again approached the Air Ministry.
This time, the Ministry's response was favourable, and a prototype of the "Interceptor Monoplane" was promptly ordered.
Of the decision to place eight machine guns in fighters, Keith says 'The battle was brisk and was carried into very high quarters before the implementing authority was given.
My Branch had made out a sound case for 8-gun fighters and if this recommendation had not been accepted and we had been content with half-measures, it might indeed have gone ill for us during the late summer of '.
Present at the meeting was Squadron Leader Ralph Sorley of the Air Ministry's Operational Requirements branch, who played an important role in the decision.
However, by this time, work had progressed too far to immediately modify the planned four-gun installation.
By January , a wooden mock-up had been finished, and although a number of suggestions for detail changes were made, construction of the prototype was approved, and a new specification F.
In July , this specification was amended to include installation of eight guns. By the end of August , work on the airframe had been completed at Hawker's Kingston upon Thames facility and the aircraft components were transported to Brooklands , Surrey , where Hawker had an assembly shed; on 23 October , the prototype was fully re-assembled.
On 6 November , the prototype K took to the air for the first time at the hands of Hawker's chief test pilot , Flight Lieutenant George Bulman.
By March , the prototype had completed ten flying hours, covering all major portions of the flight envelope. Early testing had gone reasonably well, especially in light of the trial status of the Merlin engine, which had yet to achieve full flight certification at this time and thus severe restrictions had been imposed upon use of the engine.
Sammy Wroath, later to be the founding Commandant of the Empire Test Pilots' School , was the RAF test pilot for the Hurricane: his report was favourable, stating that: "The aircraft is simple and easy to fly and has no apparent vices" and proceeded to praise its control response.
In the course of RAF trials, despite the Merlin engine proving to be problematic, having suffered numerous failures and necessitating several changes, enthusiastic reports were produced in the aircraft and its performance figures.
In the course of further testing, it was found that the Hurricane had poor spin recovery characteristics, in which all rudder authority could be lost due to shielding of the rudder.
This discovery had come too late for the changes to be incorporated in the first production aircraft, but were introduced upon the 61st built and all subsequent aircraft.
In early , the Hawker Board of Directors had decided, in the absence of official authorisation and at company expense, to proceed with issuing the design drawings to the production design office and to commence tooling-up for a production line capable of producing a batch of 1, Hurricanes.
In June , the Hurricane was formally ordered into production, the Air Ministry having placed its first order that month for aircraft.
A key reason for the aircraft's appeal was its relatively simple construction and ease of manufacture. In comparison to the Supermarine Spitfire , it was significantly cheaper and involved less labour, requiring 10, man hours to produce versus 15, for the Spitfire.
Production deliveries had been delayed by roughly six months due to a decision to equip the Hurricane only with the improved Merlin II engine, while the earlier Merlin I had been prioritised for the Fairey Battle and the Hawker Henley.
By February , No. During , Lord Beaverbrook , who was the Minister of Aircraft Production , established an organisation in which a number of manufacturers were seconded to repair and overhaul battle-damaged Hurricanes.
The Civilian Repair Organisation also overhauled battle-weary aircraft, which were later sent to training units or to other air forces; one of the factories involved was the Austin Aero Company 's Cofton Hackett plant.
Under this plan, samples, pattern aircraft, and a complete set of design documents stored on microfilm , were shipped to Canada; the RCAF ordered 20 Hurricanes to equip one fighter squadron and two more were supplied to Canadian Car and Foundry as pattern aircraft but one probably did not arrive, while the other was sent back to Britain in The Austin Aero Company completed Hurricanes.
Canada Car and Foundry was responsible for the production of 1, Hurricanes. Recognising that the supply of British-made Merlin engines might not be guaranteed, it was decided to fit one of the Yugoslavian Hurricanes with a Daimler-Benz DB engine instead; this aircraft was test flown in Three were built and two flown with this armament by the time of the Blitzkrieg in May , with at least 12 more constructed by Avions Fairey armed with the conventional eight rifle calibre machine gun armament.
The Hawker Hurricane is a low-wing cantilever monoplane outfitted with retractable undercarriage and an enclosed cockpit for the pilot.
The Hurricane was initially armed with an arrangement of eight remotely-operated wing-mounted Browning machine guns, intended for conducting rapid engagements.
Upon its entry to service, much of the performance data was intentionally concealed from the general public, but it was known that the type possessed a speed range of Though faster and more advanced than the RAF's current front line biplane fighters, the design of the Hurricane's construction was already considered to be somewhat outdated when introduced to service and resembled those used on the earlier biplanes.
The majority of the external surfaces were linen, save for a section between the cockpit and the engine cowling that used lightweight metal panels instead.
Similarly, a simple steel tube structure in the nose of the fuselage was used to support the engine; detachable panels across the cowling provided access to most of the engine's areas for inspection or adjustment purposes.
An atypical feature for the era was the use of Tungum alloy pipes throughout the cooling system. Initially, the structure of the Hurricane's cantilever wing consisted of two steel spars, which possessed considerable strength and stiffness.
Hydraulically -actuated split trailing edge flaps were present on the inner end of the wings. The majority of the Flight control surfaces , such as the Frise-type ailerons , also had fabric coverings.
An all-metal, stressed-skin wing of duraluminium a DERD specification similar to AA was introduced in April and was used for all of the later marks.
They were very different in construction but were interchangeable with the fabric-covered wings; one trials Hurricane, L , was even flown with a fabric-covered port wing and metal-covered starboard wing.
The great advantage of the metal-covered wings over the fabric ones was that the metal ones could carry far greater stress loads without needing so much structure beneath.
Changing the wings required only three hours work per aircraft. The Hurricane was furnished with a laterally-retracting undercarriage , the main undercarriage units being able to slide into recesses within the wing.
A hydraulic jack served to actuate the undercarriage, with the carefully set "pintle" angle of the strut's upper ends assisting in the folding and pivoting the legs as to reposition the wheel unit rearwards as well as inwards in order to clear the front spar when retracted.
A wide wheel-track was used to allow for considerable stability during ground movements and to enable tight turns to be performed.
The prototype and early production Hurricanes were fitted with a Watts two-bladed fixed-pitch wooden propeller.
Flight commented of this arrangement: "Many have expressed surprise that the Hurricane is not fitted with variable-pitch airscrews".
Deliveries of these began in April this was later replaced by the hydraulically operated constant-speed Rotol propeller, which came into service in time for the Battle of Britain.
Roland Beamont , a trainee pilot, describing his first flight in a Hurricane. Camm's priority was to provide the pilot with good all-round visibility.
To this end, the cockpit was mounted reasonably high in the fuselage, creating a distinctive "hump-backed" silhouette. Pilot access to the cockpit was aided by a retractable " stirrup " mounted below the trailing edge of the port wing.
This was linked to a spring-loaded hinged flap which covered a handhold on the fuselage, just behind the cockpit.
When the flap was shut, the footstep retracted into the fuselage. In addition, both wing roots were coated with strips of non-slip material.
An advantage of the steel-tube structure was that cannon shells could pass right through the wood and fabric covering without exploding.
Even if one of the steel tubes were damaged, the repair work required was relatively simple and could be done by ground crew at the airfield.
Damage to a stressed skin structure, as used by the Spitfire, required more specialised equipment to repair.
Crated Hurricanes were assembled at Takoradi in West Africa and flown across the Sahara to the Middle East theatre and, to save space, some Royal Navy aircraft carriers carried their reserve Sea Hurricanes dismantled into their major assemblies, which were slung up on the hangar bulkheads and deckhead for reassembly when needed.
In contrast, the contemporary Spitfire used all-metal monocoque construction and was thus both lighter and stronger, though less tolerant to bullet damage.
With its ease of maintenance, widely set landing gear and benign flying characteristics, the Hurricane remained in use in theatres of operations where reliability, easy handling and a stable gun platform were more important than performance, typically in roles like ground attack.
One of the design requirements of the original specification was that both the Hurricane and the Spitfire were also to be used as night fighters.
The Hurricane proved to be a relatively simple aircraft to fly at night, and shot down several German aircraft on night raids.
From early the Hurricane was also used as an "intruder" aircraft, patrolling German airfields in France at night to catch bombers taking off or landing.
By the middle of , the first 50 Hurricanes had reached squadrons and, at that time, it had been assessed that the rate of production was slightly greater than the RAF's capacity to introduce the new aircraft, which had already been accelerated.
As a result, there were some modest export sales made to other countries; at the earliest opportunity, a former RAF Hurricane I was dispatched to Yugoslavia for evaluation purposes.
Further exports were done in the final 4 months of and early Hurricane production was increased as part of a plan to create a reserve of attrition aircraft as well as re-equip existing squadrons and newly formed ones such as those of the Auxiliary Air Force.
Expansion scheme E included a target of fighters of all types by the start of By the time of the Munich Crisis , there were only two fully operational RAF squadrons of the planned 12 to be equipped with Hurricanes.
Owing to the Hurricane's rugged construction, ease of maintenance and repair in the field, and its docile landing and take-off characteristics, coupled with a wide-track undercarriage, it was selected to go to France as the principal RAF fighter.
While the two squadrons of No. It was probably because No. As the French squadrons were not familiar with the [British] use of code letters, and there could have been cause for error in aircraft identification, both Hurricane squadrons removed their Squadron identification letters, leaving the grey-painted aircraft letter aft of the [fuselage] roundel.
The decision to adopt these special changes in markings seems to have been made at 67 Group HQ the immediate command authority for the two squadrons involved to suit local circumstances.
On 24 August , the British government gave orders partially to mobilise and No. The Hurricane had its first combat action on 21 October , at the start of the Phoney War.
The Heinkels, which were flying at sea level in an attempt to avoid fighter attacks, had already been attacked and damaged by two Spitfires from 72 Squadron when six Hurricanes intercepted them.
The Hurricanes shot down four of the enemy in rapid succession, 46 Squadron claiming five and the Spitfire pilots two.
In response to a request from the French government for the provision of ten fighter squadrons to provide air support, Air Chief Marshal Sir Hugh Dowding , Commander-in-Chief of RAF Fighter Command, insisted that this number would deplete British defences severely, and so initially only four squadrons of Hurricanes, 1 , 73 , 85 and 87 , were relocated to France, keeping Spitfires back for "Home" defence.
A little later, and Squadrons joined them. After his first flight in October , Hurricane pilot Roland Beamont subsequently flew operationally with 87 Squadron, claiming three enemy aircraft during the French campaign, and delivered great praise for his aircraft's performance:.
My Hurricane was never hit in the Battles of France and Britain, and in over hr on type I never experienced an engine failure.
While the opening months of the war were characterised by little air activity in general, there were sporadic engagements and aerial skirmishes between the two sides.
That day, Pilot Officer P. On 6 November Pilot Officer P. Ayerst from 73 Squadron was the first to clash with a Messerschmitt Bf After the dogfight, he came back with five holes in his fuselage.
On 22 December the Hurricanes in France suffered their first losses: three of them, while trying to intercept an unidentified aircraft between Metz and Thionville , were jumped by four Bf Es from III.
Perry and J. Winn for no loss. In May , Nos. F pilots to engage enemy aircraft in the campaign.
They attacked one of three Dornier Do 17s from 4. The Dornier went away unscathed, while Orton was hit by defensive fire and had to force land.
On 12 May several Hurricanes units were committed to escort bombers. That morning, five Fairey Battle volunteer crews from 12 Squadron took off from Amifontaine base to bomb Vroenhoven and Veldwezelt bridges on the Meuse , at Maastricht.
When the formation approached Maastricht, it was bounced by 16 Bf Es from 2. Two Battles and two Hurricanes including Halahan's were shot down, two more Battles were brought down by flak and the fifth bomber had to crash-land.
On 13 May , a further 32 Hurricanes arrived. All ten requested Hurricane squadrons were then operating from French soil and felt the full force of the Nazi offensive.
The following day, Hurricanes suffered heavy losses: 27 being shot down, 22 by Messerschmitts, with 15 pilots killed another died some days later , including Squadron Leader J.
By 17 May, the end of the first week of fighting, only three of the squadrons were near operational strength, but the Hurricanes had managed to destroy nearly twice as many German aircraft.
On these two days Hurricanes suffered heavier losses, with 68 Hurricanes shot down or forced to crash-land due to combat damage.
Fifteen pilots were killed, eight were taken prisoner and eleven injured. Two-thirds of the Hurricanes had been shot down by Messerschmitt Bf s and Bf s.
In the afternoon of 20 May , the Hurricane units based in northern France were ordered to abandon their bases on the continent and return to Great Britain.
On the same day, "Bull" Halahan requested the repatriation of the pilots serving in 1 Squadron.
During the previous 10 days, the unit had been the most successful of the campaign; it had claimed 63 victories for the loss of five pilots: two killed, one taken prisoner and two hospitalised.
During the 11 days of fighting in France and over Dunkirk from 10—21 May, Hurricane pilots claimed kills and probables.
Contemporary German records, examined postwar, attribute Luftwaffe aircraft destroyed and 65 seriously damaged by RAF fighters.
Between 26 May and 3 June , the 14 Hurricane units involved were credited with air victories. Strategy for Defeat: The Luftwaffe — .
On 27 May , in one of the final mass encounters of the Blitzkrieg , 13 Hurricanes from Squadron intercepted 24 Heinkel He s escorted by 20 Bf s; during the ensuing battle, 11 Heinkels were claimed as "kills" and others damaged, with little damage to the Hurricanes.
On leaving his airfield, he put on an impromptu aerobatic display and was killed when his Hurricane crashed after completing a loop and attempting some low altitude "flick" rolls.
Initial engagements with the Luftwaffe had showed the Hurricane to be a tight-turning and steady platform, but the Watts two-bladed propeller was clearly unsuitable.
At least one pilot complained of how a Heinkel was able to pull away from him in a chase, yet by this time the Heinkel was obsolete.
From early , increasing quantities of octane fuel imported from the U. Flight Lieutenant Ian Gleed of 87 Squadron wrote about the effect of using the extra boost on the Hurricane while chasing a Bf at low altitude on 19 May "Damn!
We're flat out as it is. Here goes with the tit. Give him a burst. No, hold your fire you fool! He hasn't seen you yet Hurricanes equipped with Rotol constant-speed propellers were delivered to RAF squadrons in May , with deliveries continuing throughout the Battle of Britain.
According to aviation author David Donald, the Rotol propeller had the effect of transforming the Hurricane's performance from "disappointing" to "acceptable mediocrity"; modified aircraft were reportedly much sought after among squadrons which had also been equipped with Hurricanes that were fitted with the older de Havilland two-position propeller.
At the end of June , following the fall of France, 31 of Fighter Command's 61 fighter squadrons were equipped with Hurricanes. Both the Supermarine Spitfire and the Hurricane are renowned for their part in defending Britain against the Luftwaffe; generally, the Spitfire would intercept the German fighters, leaving Hurricanes to concentrate on the bombers, but, despite the undoubted abilities of the "thoroughbred" Spitfire, it was the "workhorse" Hurricane that scored the higher number of RAF victories during this period, accounting for 55 per cent of the 2, German losses, according to Fighter Command, compared with 42 per cent by Spitfires.
This squadron also had the distinction of having the highest ratio of enemy aircraft destroyed to own losses suffered.
Roland Beamont describing how a Hurricane can get away from an Me As a fighter, the Hurricane had some drawbacks. It was slightly slower than both the Spitfire I and II and the Messerschmitt Bf E, and the thicker wing profiles compromised acceleration; but it could out-turn both of them.
In spite of its performance deficiencies against the Bf , the Hurricane was still capable of destroying the German fighter, especially at lower altitudes.
The standard tactic of the s was to attempt to climb higher than the RAF fighters and "bounce" them in a dive; the Hurricanes could evade such tactics by turning into the attack or going into a "corkscrew dive", which the s, with their lower rate of roll, found hard to counter.
If a was caught in a dogfight, the Hurricane was just as capable of out-turning the as the Spitfire. In a stern chase, the could evade the Hurricane.
In September , the more powerful Mk IIa series 1 Hurricanes started entering service, although only in small numbers. The Hurricane was a steady gun platform,  and had demonstrated its ruggedness as several were badly damaged yet returned to base.
But the Hurricane's construction made it dangerous if it caught fire; the wood frames and fabric covering of the rear fuselage allowed fire to spread through the rear fuselage structure easily.
In addition, the gravity fuel tank in the forward fuselage sat right in front of the instrument panel, without any form of protection for the pilot.
Many Hurricane pilots were seriously burned as a consequence of a jet of flame which could burn through the instrument panel.
This became of such concern to Hugh Dowding that he had Hawker retrofit the fuselage tanks of the Hurricanes with a self-expanding rubber coating called Linatex.
From 10 July to 11 August , RAF fighters fired at German bombers and shot down 80, a destruction ratio of 70 per cent.
Against the Bf , the RAF fighters attacked 70 and shot down 54 of these, a ratio of 77 per cent. It has been suggested that part of the success of the British fighters was possibly due to the use of the de Wilde incendiary round.
He was killed on 1 November while taking on a superior number of Bf s. As in the Spitfire, the Merlin engine suffered from negative-G cut-out, a problem not cured until the introduction of Miss Shilling's orifice in early The only Battle of Britain Victoria Cross , and the only one awarded to a member of Fighter Command during the war,  was awarded to Flight Lieutenant Eric Nicolson of Squadron as a result of an action on 16 August when his section of three Hurricanes was "bounced" from above by Bf fighters.
All three were hit simultaneously. It was used in this fashion until the Hawker Typhoon arrived in In the early s, it became increasingly clear to the Royal Air Force that it required new modern fighters.
When his initial efforts were rebuffed by the Air Ministry, Hawker began working on a new fighter as a private venture.
Responding to Air Ministry Specification F. Due to the economic factors of the day, he sought to utilize as many existing parts and manufacturing techniques as possible.
The result was an aircraft that was essentially an improved, monoplane version of the earlier Hawker Fury biplane.
By May , the design reached an advanced stage and model testing moved forward. Concerned about advanced fighter development in Germany, the Air Ministry ordered a prototype of the aircraft the following year.
Completed in October , the prototype flew for the first time on November 6 with Flight Lieutenant P.
Bulman at the controls. Though more advanced than the RAF's existing types, the new Hawker Hurricane incorporated many tried and true construction techniques.
Chief among these was the use of a fuselage built from high-tensile steel tubes. This supported a wooden framework covered by doped linen.
Though dated technology, this approach made the aircraft easier to build and repair than all-metal types such as the Supermarine Spitfire.
While the aircraft's wings were initially fabric covered, they were soon replaced by all-metal wings which greatly increased its performance.
Ordered into production in June , the Hurricane quickly gave the RAF a modern fighter as work continued on the Spitfire. Through the course of the war, around 14, Hurricanes of various types would be built in Britain and Canada.
The first major alteration to the aircraft occurred early in production as improvements were made to the propeller, additional armor was installed, and metal wings made standard.
The next significant change to the Hurricane came in mid with the creation of the Mk. The aircraft continued to be modified and improved with variants moving into the ground-attack role with the addition of bomb racks and cannon.
Largely eclipsed in the air superiority role by late , the Hurricane became an effective ground-attack aircraft with models progressing to the Mk.
The aircraft was also used by the Fleet Air Arm as the Sea Hurricane which operated from carriers and catapult-equipped merchant ships.
The Hurricane first saw action on a large scale when, against Dowding's now leading Fighter Command wishes, four squadrons were sent to France in late